Sustainable operation and successful application is critical to CWs. We review the application of CWs as a green technology. We summarize the key design parameters for the sustainable operation of CWs. Future research is given on improving wastewater treatment plant design pdf free download stability and sustainability of CWs.
CWs offer a land-intensive, low-energy, and less-operational-requirements alternative to conventional treatment systems, especially for small communities and remote locations. However, the sustainable operation and successful application of these systems remains a challenge. Hence, this paper aims to provide and inspire sustainable solutions for the performance and application of CWs by giving a comprehensive review of CWs’ application and the recent development on their sustainable design and operation for wastewater treatment. Firstly, a brief summary on the definition, classification and application of current CWs was presented. The design parameters and operational conditions of CWs including plant species, substrate types, water depth, hydraulic load, hydraulic retention time and feeding mode related to the sustainable operation for wastewater treatments were then discussed. Lastly, future research on improving the stability and sustainability of CWs were highlighted. The characteristics of wastewater vary depending on the source.
The composition of wastewater varies widely. Both the BOD and COD tests are a measure of the relative oxygen-depletion effect of a waste contaminant. COD test measures the oxygen demand of oxidizable pollutants. The result is that the oxygen content of the water will be decreased. There are numerous processes that can be used to clean up wastewaters depending on the type and extent of contamination. 20 percent of the homes in the U. Industrial wastewater effluent with neutralized pH from tailing runoff in Peru.
There are several technologies used to treat wastewater for reuse. A combination of these technologies can meet strict treatment standards and make sure that the processed water is hygienically safe, meaning free from bacteria and viruses. Some water demanding activities do not require high grade water. In this case, wastewater can be reused with little or no treatment.