The unthinkable revolution charles kurzman download pdf


SAVAK staffing at between the unthinkable revolution charles kurzman download pdf,000 and 6,000. Tehran in December 1953 and immediately began to assemble the nucleus of a new intelligence organization.

Army colonel worked closely with Bakhtīār and his subordinates, commanding the new intelligence organization and training its members in basic intelligence techniques, such as surveillance and interrogation methods, the use of intelligence networks, and organizational security. This organization was the first modern, effective intelligence service to operate in Persia. These in turn were replaced by SAVAK’s own instructors in 1965. After 1963, the Shah expanded his security organizations, including SAVAK, which grew to over 5,300 full-time agents and a large but unknown number of part-time informers. In 1970, SAVAK agents assassinated him, disguising the deed as an accident. Khomeini was under house arrest, and later intervened to prevent Khomeini’s execution on the grounds that it would “anger the common people of Iran”.

Pakravan was among the first of the Shah’s officials to be executed by the Khomeini regime. February 1971, although it is also reported to have tortured to death a Shia cleric, Ayatollah Muhammad Reza Sa’idi, in 1970. SAVAK interrogators were sent abroad for “scientific training to prevent unwanted deaths from ‘brute force. This latter contraption was dubbed the Apollo—an allusion to the American space capsules. Prisoners were also humiliated by being raped, urinated on, and forced to stand naked. By the end of 1975, twenty-two prominent poets, novelist, professors, theater directors, and film makers were in jail for criticizing the regime.