God has infinitely many other attributes which are not present in our world. In Spinozism, the concept of a personal relationship with God comes from the position that one is a part of an infinite interdependent “organism”. The spinoza of market street pdf argued that everything is a derivative of God, interconnected with all of existence. Although humans only experience thought and extension, what happens to one aspect of existence will still affect others.
All that happens or will happen could not have unfolded in any other way. More specifically, he defined this as the ability for the human intellect to intuit knowledge based upon its accumulated understanding of the world around them. However, one should keep in mind the neutral monist position. Spinoza’s doctrine was considered radical at the time he published and he was widely seen as the most infamous atheist-heretic of Europe.
Specifically, Spinoza disagreed with Descartes on substance duality, Descartes’ views on the will and the intellect, and the subject of free will. This means, essentially, that substance is just whatever can be thought of without relating it to any other idea or thing. By attribute I understand what the intellect perceives of a substance, as constituting its essence. From this it can be seen that attributes are related to substance in some way. Spinoza thinks we can have knowledge. The attribute of extension is how substance can be understood to be physically extended in space. Except God, no substance can be or be conceived.
Spinoza takes this proposition to follow directly from everything he says prior to it. I pass, finally, to the remaining Part of the Ethics, which concerns the means or way, leading to Freedom. Here, then, I shall treat of the power of reason, showing what it can do against the affects, and what Freedom of Mind, or blessedness, is. Within the context of Spinoza’s philosophical system, the PSR can be understood to unify causation and explanation. Given this, Spinoza’s views regarding causality and modality begin to make much more sense. The order and connection of ideas is the same as the order and connection of things. The knowledge of an effect depends on, and involves, the knowledge of its cause.
Further, there is only one substance, so whenever we understand some chain of ideas of things, we understand that the way the ideas are causally related must be the same as the way the things themselves are related, since the ideas and the things are the same modes understood under different attributes. Spinoza inspired the poet Shelley to write his essay “The Necessity of Atheism. Thus, Spinoza’s cool, indifferent God differs from the concept of an anthropomorphic, fatherly God who cares about humanity. Even God under the attributes of thought and extension cannot be identified strictly with our world. Following this logic, our world should be considered as a mode under two attributes of thought and extension.