The sum of reciprocal powers pdf dr mohammed of mathematical notation can be divided in stages. Beginning in Italy in the 16th century, new mathematical developments, interacting with new scientific discoveries, were made at an increasing pace that continues through the present day.

Numerical notation’s distinctive feature, i. Our knowledge of the mathematical attainments of these early peoples, to which this section is devoted, is imperfect and the following brief notes be regarded as a summary of the conclusions which seem most probable, and the history of mathematics begins with the symbolic sections. The numerical symbols consisted probably of strokes or notches cut in wood or stone, and intelligible alike to all nations. For example, one notch in a bone represented one animal, or person, or anything else.

Egyptians or to the Phoenicians. Hieratic was more like cursive and replaced several groups of symbols with individual ones. For example, the four vertical lines used to represent four were replaced by a single horizontal line. The system the Egyptians used was discovered and modified by many other civilizations in the Mediterranean. The Egyptians also had symbols for basic operations: legs going forward represented addition, and legs walking backward to represent subtraction.