Smuggler nation peter andreas pdf


Townshend Acts, but died before their detrimental effects became apparent. British acts passed beginning in 1767 smuggler nation peter andreas pdf relating to the British American colonies in North America.

British Parliament had the right to tax the colonies. The Townshend Acts placed an indirect tax on glass, lead, paints, paper and tea. These goods were not produced within the colonies and had to be imported from Britain. This form of generating revenue was Townshend’s response to the failure of the Stamp Act, which served as the first form of direct taxation placed upon the colonies.

However, the import duties proved to be similarly controversial. As a result of widespread protest and non-importation of British goods in colonial ports, Parliament began to partially repeal the Townshend duties. Parliament had used taxation to regulate the trade of the empire. 1764, Parliament sought, for the first time, to tax the colonies for the specific purpose of raising revenue. American colonists argued that there were constitutional issues involved. The Stamp Act proved to be wildly unpopular in the colonies, contributing to its repeal the following year, along with the lack of substantial revenue being raised. Implicit in the Stamp Act dispute was an issue more fundamental than taxation and representation: the question of the extent of Parliament’s authority in the colonies.

Parliament could legislate for the colonies “in all cases whatsoever”. The first of the Townshend Acts, sometimes simply known as the Townshend Act, was the Revenue Act of 1767. American colonies after the repeal of the Stamp Act in 1766. These were items that were not produced in North America and that the colonists were only allowed to buy from Great Britain. Parliament for the purpose of raising revenue was unconstitutional.

Townshend’s mistaken belief that Americans regarded internal taxes as unconstitutional and external taxes constitutional”, wrote historian John Phillip Reid, “was of vital importance in the history of events leading to the Revolution. There was little opposition expressed in Parliament at the time. Never could a fateful measure have had a more quiet passage”, wrote historian Peter Thomas. The Indemnity Act repealed taxes on tea imported to England, allowing it to be re-exported more cheaply to the colonies. This tax cut in England would be partially offset by the new Revenue Act taxes on tea in the colonies.

The original stated purpose of the Townshend duties was to raise a revenue to help pay the cost of maintaining an army in North America. Townshend changed the purpose of the tax plan, however, and instead decided to use the revenue to pay the salaries of some colonial governors and judges. According to historian John C. Miller, “Townshend ingeniously sought to take money from Americans by means of parliamentary taxation and to employ it against their liberties by making colonial governors and judges independent of the assemblies.

40,000 in yearly revenue, but he explained that once the precedent for taxing the colonists had been firmly established, the programme could gradually be expanded until the colonies paid for themselves. According to historian Peter Thomas, Townshend’s “aims were political rather than financial”. The Board was created because of the difficulties the British Board faced in enforcing trade regulations in the distant colonies. Five commissioners were appointed to the board, which was headquartered in Boston. The American Customs Board would generate considerable hostility in the colonies towards the British government.