Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The input voltage depends on the design and purpose of the inverter. 12 V DC, for smaller consumer and commercial inverters that typically run from a rechargeable 12 V single phase bridge inverter pdf acid battery or automotive electrical outlet.
24, 36 and 48 V DC, which are common standards for home energy systems. 200 to 400 V DC, when power is from photovoltaic solar panels. 300 to 450 V DC, when power is from electric vehicle battery packs in vehicle-to-grid systems. The two dominant commercialized waveform types of inverters as of 2007 are modified sine wave and sine wave. DC and then converts to AC. This is one of the simplest waveforms an inverter design can produce and is best suited to low-sensitivity applications such as lighting and heating. Square wave output can produce “humming” when connected to audio equipment and is generally unsuitable for sensitive electronics.
However, this is not critical for most electronics as they deal with the output quite well. Where power inverter devices substitute for standard line power, a sine wave output is desirable because many electrical products are engineered to work best with a sine wave AC power source. The standard electric utility provides a sine wave, typically with minor imperfections but sometimes with significant distortion. DVD players, function on quality modified sine wave power. AC motors directly operated on non-sinusoidal power may produce extra heat, may have different speed-torque characteristics, or may produce more audible noise than when running on sinusoidal power.
90 degrees relative to the other. The resultant wave very roughly resembles the shape of a sine wave. Most inexpensive consumer power inverters produce a modified sine wave rather than a pure sine wave. The waveform in commercially available modified-sine-wave inverters resembles a square wave but with a pause during the polarity reversal. Switching states are developed for positive, negative and zero voltages. The DC bus voltage may be actively regulated, or the “on” and “off” times can be modified to maintain the same RMS value output up to the DC bus voltage to compensate for DC bus voltage variations. The generated gate pulses are given to each switch in accordance with the developed pattern to obtain the desired output.
Harmonic spectrum in the output depends on the width of the pulses and the modulation frequency. Numerous items of electric equipment will operate quite well on modified sine wave power inverter devices, especially loads that are resistive in nature such as traditional incandescent light bulbs. However, the load may operate less efficiently owing to the harmonics associated with a modified sine wave and produce a humming noise during operation. This also affects the efficiency of the system as a whole, since the manufacturer’s nominal conversion efficiency does not account for harmonics. Therefore, pure sine wave inverters may provide significantly higher efficiency than modified sine wave inverters.