Refining of crude oil pdf


Petroleum refineries are very large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities such as utility units and storage tanks. Each refinery has its own unique arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery location, desired products and economic considerations. According to the Oil refining of crude oil pdf Gas Journal in the world a total of 636 refineries were operated on the 31 December 2014 for a total capacity of 87. Jamnagar Refinery is the largest oil refinery.

The Chinese were among the first civilizations to refine oil. During the first century AD, the Chinese were among the first peoples to refine oil for use as an energy source. Fierce Oil Workshop”, was established in the city of Kaifeng to produce refined oil for the Song military as a weapon. The workshop was one of the world’s earliest oil refining factories where thousands of people worked to produce Chinese oil powered weaponry. 1856 using the abundant oil available in Romania.

The industry grew slowly in the 1800s, primarily producing kerosene for oil lamps. In the early twentieth century, the introduction of the internal combustion engine and its use in automobiles created a market for gasoline that was the impetus for fairly rapid growth of the petroleum industry. America’s first oil refinery in Pittsburgh on Seventh avenue near Grant Street, in 1853. Salzbergen’s refinery was opened in 1860. All of the many other refining processes discussed below were developed during the war or within a few years after the war. They became commercially available within 5 to 10 years after the war ended and the worldwide petroleum industry experienced very rapid growth. The driving force for that growth in technology and in the number and size of refineries worldwide was the growing demand for automotive gasoline and aircraft fuel.

In the United States, for various complex economic and political reasons, the construction of new refineries came to a virtual stop in about the 1980s. In the 19th century, refineries in the U. There was no market for the more volatile fraction, including gasoline, which was considered waste and was often dumped directly into the nearest river. The invention of the automobile shifted the demand to gasoline and diesel, which remain the primary refined products today. Today, national and state legislation requires refineries to meet stringent air and water cleanliness standards. In fact, oil companies in the U.

1976 until 2014, when the small Dakota Prairie Refinery in North Dakota is set to begin operation. More than half the refineries that existed in 1981 are now closed due to low utilization rates and accelerating mergers. Increases in facility size and improvements in efficiencies have offset much of the lost physical capacity of the industry. United States operated 301 refineries with a combined capacity of 17. In 2010, there were 149 operable U.