Presidential power and constitutional responsibility pdf


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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The name referred to his primary role of presiding over trials and other hearings. However, the Lord President alone was not head of state, because that office was vested in the council as a whole. Some have speculated that he borrowed the term out of a sense of humility, considering himself only a temporary place-holder. Once the United States adopted the title of “president” for its republican head of state, many other nations followed suit.

1810s and 1820s chose a US-style president as their chief executive. In the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, the powers of presidencies have varied from country to country. The spectrum of power has included presidents-for-life and hereditary presidencies to ceremonial heads of state. The powers vested in such presidents vary considerably. In most states of the United States, each elector is committed to voting for a specified candidate determined by the popular vote in each state, so that the people, in voting for each elector, are in effect voting for the candidate. However, for various reasons the numbers of electors in favour of each candidate are unlikely to be proportional to the popular vote.

The candidate who wins the most votes is elected president even without an absolute majority. The president may never get another term. Again, a candidate needs a majority of the vote to be elected. In Brazil, a president cannot be elected to more than two consecutive terms, but there is no limit on the number of terms a president can serve. When the National Assembly is controlled by his opponents, however, the president can find himself marginalized with the opposition party prime minister exercising most of the power.

Though the prime minister remains an appointee of the president, the president must obey the rules of parliament, and select a leader from the house’s majority holding party. However, the president is head of the civil service, commander in chief of the armed forces and can dissolve parliament. Only a tiny minority of modern republics do not have a single head of state. Ironically, most leaders who proclaim themselves President for Life do not in fact successfully serve a life term.