How clean is the electricity you use? Need help translating abstract greenhouse gas measurements into concrete natural gas treatment process pdf you can understand?
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Investment and operating costs are lower than commercial technologies. Heavy hydrocarbon absorption is more selective with less reduction on gas flow. Process is simpler and operation conditions are less severe than other processes. Heavy hydrocarbon removal is one of the processes found in natural gas processing plants for reducing heating value and hydrocarbon dew point to sales gas quality. Thomson expansion, turboexpansion, mechanical refrigeration, membrane separation and supersonic centrifugal separation. In this paper, a novel absorption process system is presented for dew point control of natural gas streams associated to crude oil production. The system is based on simultaneous absorption of heavy hydrocarbons and water from natural gas using a mixture of TEG and lean oil.
This alternative technology has an equipment count, investment and operating cost, and energy consumption lower than commercial technologies available nowadays. An energy balance and economic assessment for each process option are developed considering investment and operating cost and profitability analysis. Process description, operating conditions, equipment requirements, recovery efficiency and limitations for the new absorption process are presented. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. As of 2013, the US, Canada, and China are the only countries producing shale gas in commercial quantities. The US and Canada are the only countries where shale gas is a significant part of the gas supply.
Shale gas has become an increasingly important source of natural gas in the United States since the start of this century, and interest has spread to potential gas shales in the rest of the world. United States’ natural gas supply will come from shale gas. In 2012, US carbon dioxide emissions dropped to a 20-year low. GHG emissions were as high as those of coal. Some 2011 studies pointed to high rates of decline of some shale gas wells as an indication that shale gas production may ultimately be much lower than is currently projected.
Federal price controls on natural gas led to shortages in the 1970s. Gas Research Institute, where the federal government began extensive research funding in 1982, disseminating the results to industry. The Department of Energy later partnered with private gas companies to complete the first successful air-drilled multi-fracture horizontal well in shale in 1986. The federal government further incentivized drilling in shale via the Section 29 tax credit for unconventional gas from 1980-2000.
The DOE program also applied two technologies that had been developed previously by industry, massive hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling, to shale gas formations. Although the Eastern Gas Shales Project had increased gas production in the Appalachian and Michigan basins, shale gas was still widely seen as marginal to uneconomic without tax credits, and shale gas provided only 1. US gas production in 2000, when the federal tax credits expired. Mitchell Energy achieved the first economical shale fracture in 1998 using slick-water fracturing. Since then, natural gas from shale has been the fastest growing contributor to total primary energy in the United States, and has led many other countries to pursue shale deposits.
An illustration of shale gas compared to other types of gas deposits. The geological risk of not finding gas is low in resource plays, but the potential profits per successful well are usually also lower. Shales that host economic quantities of gas have a number of common properties. They are sufficiently brittle and rigid enough to maintain open fractures.
Although the shale gas potential of many nations is being studied, as of 2013, only the US, Canada, and China produce shale gas in commercial quantities, and only the US and Canada have significant shale gas production. While China has ambitious plans to dramatically increase its shale gas production, these efforts have been checked by inadequate access to technology, water, and land. The US EIA had made an earlier estimate of total recoverable shale gas in various countries in 2011, which for some countries differed significantly from the 2013 estimates. The total recoverable shale gas in the United States, which was estimated at 862 trillion cubic feet in 2011, was revised downward to 665 trillion cubic feet in 2013. Recoverable shale gas in Canada, which was estimated to be 388 TCF in 2011, was revised upward to 573 TCF in 2013. 2,431 tcf, including both shale and conventional gas. Europe would be the fastest growing region, accounting for the highest CAGR of 59.