Some pens employ removable reservoirs in the form my fountain pen collection pdf pre-filled ink cartridges. An early historical mention of what appears to be a reservoir pen dates back to the 10th century.
Leonardo’s journals contain drawings with cross-sections of what appears to be a reservoir pen that works by both gravity and capillary action. Historians also took note of the fact that the handwriting in the inventor’s surviving journals is of a consistent contrast throughout, rather than the characteristic fading pattern typical of a quill pen caused by expending and re-dipping. While no physical item survives, several working models were reconstructed in 2011 by artist Amerigo Bombara that have since been put on display in museums dedicated to Leonardo. The fountain pen was available in Europe in the 17th century, and is shown by contemporary references. Ink was squeezed through a small hole to the writing point. By the early 18th century such pens were already commonly known as “fountain pens”.
Progress in developing a reliable pen was slow until the mid-19th century because of an imperfect understanding of the role that air pressure plays in the operation of pens. Furthermore, most inks were highly corrosive and full of sedimentary inclusions. May 25, 1827, for the invention of the first fountain pen with a barrel made from a large swan quill. 1850s, more than half the steel-nib pens manufactured in the world were made in Birmingham. Thousands of skilled craftsmen were employed in the industry. Many new manufacturing techniques were perfected, enabling the city’s factories to mass-produce their pens cheaply and efficiently.
These were sold worldwide to many who previously could not afford to write, thus encouraging the development of education and literacy. In 1848, American inventor Azel Storrs Lyman patented a pen with “a combined holder and nib”. However, it was only after three key inventions were in place that the fountain pen became a widely popular writing instrument. The first fountain pens making use of all these key ingredients appeared in the 1850s. Stylographic pens are now used mostly for drafting and technical drawing but were very popular in the decade beginning in 1875. Waterman soon outstripped Wirt, along with many companies that sprang up to fill the new and growing fountain pen market. Waterman remained the market leader until the early 1920s.