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The celiac disease is the most common food intolerance and its prevalence is increasing. Consequently, use of gluten-free diet has expanded, notwithstanding consumption as therapy for other gluten-related disorders or by wellbeing people without any medical prescription. Even the therapeutic efficiency has undoubtedly proven, several drawbacks mainly regarding the compliance, nutritional deficits and related diseases, and the alteration of the intestinal microbiota have described in the literature. Food science has been considered as one of the primary area of intervention to limit or eliminate such drawbacks. Efforts have approached shelf life, rheology and palatability aspects but more recently have mainly focused to improve the nutritional features of the gluten-free diet, and to propose dietary alternatives.
The sourdough fermentation has shown the most promising results, also including a biotechnology strategy that has allowed the complete degradation of gluten prior to consumption. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. Note 1: A biofilm is a system that can be adapted internally to environmental conditions by its inhabitants. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, they have been metaphorically described as “cities for microbes”.
Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. A biofilm may also be considered a hydrogel, which is a complex polymer containing many times its dry weight in water. Biofilms can attach to a surface such as a tooth, rock, or surface which may include a single species or of a diverse group of microorganisms. The biofilm bacteria are able to share nutrients and are sheltered from harmful factors in the environment, such as desiccation, antibiotics, and a host body’s immune system. A biofilm usually begins to form when a free-swimming bacterium attaches to a surface. The formation of a biofilm begins with the attachment of free-floating microorganisms to a surface. Some bacteria species are not able to attach to a surface on their own successfully due to their limited motility but are instead able to anchor themselves to the matrix or directly to other, earlier bacteria colonists.
Once colonization has begun, the biofilm grows through a combination of cell division and recruitment. In addition to the polysaccharides, these matrices may also contain material from the surrounding environment, including but not limited to minerals, soil particles, and blood components, such as erythrocytes and fibrin. The final stage of biofilm formation is known as dispersion, and is the stage in which the biofilm is established and may only change in shape and size. All photomicrographs are shown to the same scale. Dispersal of cells from the biofilm colony is an essential stage of the biofilm life cycle. Dispersal enables biofilms to spread and colonize new surfaces. Biofilm matrix degrading enzymes may be useful as anti-biofilm agents.