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This article is about the insect. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world. Currently, 4,600 species and over 460 genera are described worldwide. Latin was applied not only to cockroaches, but also to mantids.
Historically, the name Blattaria was used largely interchangeably with the name Blattodea, but whilst the former name was used to refer to ‘true’ cockroaches exclusively, the latter also includes the termites. The current catalogue of world cockroach species uses the name Blattodea for the group. 320 million years ago, as are fossil roachoid nymphs. As the body, hind wings and mouthparts are not preserved in fossils frequently, the relationship of these roachoids and modern cockroaches remains disputed. A recent phylogenetic analysis suggests that cockroaches originated at least in the Jurassic. Additional evidence emerged when F. The similarities among these cockroaches and termites have led some scientists to reclassify termites as a single family, the Termitidae, within the order Blattodea.
Such measure preserves the classification of termites at family level and below. Most species of cockroach are about the size of a thumbnail, but several species are bigger. They have a relatively small head and a broad, flattened body, and most species are reddish-brown to dark brown. The body is divided into a thorax of three segments and a ten-segmented abdomen. It is coated with wax to repel water. The wings are attached to the second and third thoracic segments.
All four wings have branching longitudinal veins, and multiple cross-veins. They are attached to each of the three thoracic segments. The front legs are the shortest and the hind legs the longest, providing the main propulsive power when the insect runs. The spines on the legs were earlier considered to be sensory, but observations of the insect’s gait on sand and wire meshes have demonstrated that they help in locomotion on difficult terrain. The structures have been used as inspiration for robotic legs. Cockroaches are abundant throughout the world and live in a wide range of environments, especially in the tropics and subtropics. 50 species separated into five families are found throughout the continent.