Irrigation and water power engineering pdf


This article is about irrigation for agriculture and landscapes. Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures. Animal-powered irrigation, Upper Egypt, ca. Irrigation began in Nubia irrigation and water power engineering pdf time between the third and second millennium BCE.

BCE and was based on wet season flooding and water harvesting. Columbian America, early Syria, India, and China. 3000 BCE and an early canal irrigation system from circa 2600 BCE. Large scale agriculture was practiced and an extensive network of canals was used for the purpose of irrigation. 800 BCE, are among the oldest known irrigation methods still in use today.

They are now found in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa. The system comprises a network of vertical wells and gently sloping tunnels driven into the sides of cliffs and steep hills to tap groundwater. By 150 BCE the pots were fitted with valves to allow smoother filling as they were forced into the water. Due to their engineering superiority in this sector, they were often called ‘masters of irrigation’.