Humberto maturana ontology of observing pdf

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An emergent property of a system, in this context, is one that is not a property of any component of that system, but is still a feature of the system as a whole. It is otherwise with emergents, when, instead of adding measurable humberto maturana ontology of observing pdf to measurable motion, or things of one kind to other individuals of their kind, there is a co-operation of things of unlike kinds. The emergent is unlike its components insofar as these are incommensurable, and it cannot be reduced to their sum or their difference.

They serve merely to describe regularities and consistent relationships in nature. Indeed, you cannot even reliably predict the next move in a chess game. It also includes the players and their unfolding, moment-by-moment decisions among a very large number of available options at each choice point. The game of chess is inescapably historical, even though it is also constrained and shaped by a set of rules, not to mention the laws of physics. Usage of the notion “emergence” may generally be subdivided into two perspectives, that of “weak emergence” and “strong emergence”. In terms of physical systems, weak emergence is a type of emergence in which the emergent property is amenable to computer simulation. This is opposed to the older notion of strong emergence, in which the emergent property cannot be simulated by a computer.

Some common points between the two notions are that emergence concerns new properties produced as the system grows, which is to say ones which are not shared with its components or prior states. Weak emergence describes new properties arising in systems as a result of the interactions at an elemental level. Bedau notes that weak emergence is not a universal metaphysical solvent, as weak emergence leads to the conclusion that matter itself contains elements of awareness to it. However, Bedau concludes that adopting this view would provide a precise notion that emergence is involved in consciousness, and second, the notion of weak emergence is metaphysically benign.

The whole is other than the sum of its parts. An example from physics of such emergence is water, being seemingly unpredictable even after an exhaustive study of the properties of its constituent atoms of hydrogen and oxygen. It follows then that no simulation of the system can exist, for such a simulation would itself constitute a reduction of the system to its constituent parts. However, “the debate about whether or not the whole can be predicted from the properties of the parts misses the point. The ability to reduce everything to simple fundamental laws does not imply the ability to start from those laws and reconstruct the universe.

The constructionist hypothesis breaks down when confronted with the twin difficulties of scale and complexity. At each level of complexity entirely new properties appear. Psychology is not applied biology, nor is biology applied chemistry. We can now see that the whole becomes not merely more, but very different from the sum of its parts. The plausibility of strong emergence is questioned by some as contravening our usual understanding of physics. Although strong emergence is logically possible, it is uncomfortably like magic. How does an irreducible but supervenient downward causal power arise, since by definition it cannot be due to the aggregation of the micro-level potentialities?

Such causal powers would be quite unlike anything within our scientific ken. This not only indicates how they will discomfort reasonable forms of materialism. Their mysteriousness will only heighten the traditional worry that emergence entails illegitimately getting something from nothing. Now, M, as an emergent, must itself have an emergence base property, say P. Now we face a critical question: if an emergent, M, emerges from basal condition P, why cannot P displace M as a cause of any putative effect of M?

Why cannot P do all the work in explaining why any alleged effect of M occurred? Moreover, this goes against the spirit of emergentism in any case: emergents are supposed to make distinctive and novel causal contributions. Meanwhile, others have worked towards developing analytical evidence of strong emergence. In 2009, Gu et al. More precisely, if one could compute certain macroscopic properties of these systems from the microscopic description of these systems, then one would be able to solve computational problems known to be undecidable in computer science. Although macroscopic concepts are essential for understanding our world, much of fundamental physics has been devoted to the search for a `theory of everything’, a set of equations that perfectly describe the behavior of all fundamental particles. The view that this is the goal of science rests in part on the rationale that such a theory would allow us to derive the behavior of all macroscopic concepts, at least in principle.

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