This article has multiple issues. There is much more to cooperative learning than merely arranging students into groups, and game based learning definition pdf has been described as “structuring positive interdependence. Students must work in groups to complete tasks collectively toward academic goals.
Furthermore, the teacher’s role changes from giving information to facilitating students’ learning. Everyone succeeds when the group succeeds. Cooperative learning has also been linked to increased levels of student satisfaction. Prior to World War II, social theorists such as Allport, Watson, Shaw, and Mead began establishing cooperative learning theory after finding that group work was more effective and efficient in quantity, quality, and overall productivity when compared to working alone.
Furthermore, they found that independent achievers had a greater likelihood of displaying competitive behaviours. Morton Deutsh also influenced the cooperative learning theory practiced today. Dewey believed it was important that students develop knowledge and social skills that could be used outside of the classroom, and in the democratic society. Lewin’s contributions to cooperative learning were based on the ideas of establishing relationships between group members in order to successfully carry out and achieve the learning goal. Since then, David and Roger Johnson have been actively contributing to the cooperative learning theory. In 1975, they identified that cooperative learning promoted mutual liking, better communication, high acceptance and support, as well as demonstrated an increase in a variety of thinking strategies among individuals in the group.
Students who showed to be more competitive lacked in their interaction and trust with others, as well as in their emotional involvement with other students. Social interdependence exists when the outcomes of individuals are affected by their own and others’ actions. Social interdependence may be differentiated from social dependence, independence, and helplessness. Social dependence exists when the goal achievement of Person A is affected by Person B’s actions, but the reverse is not true. Social independence exists when the goal achievement of Person A is unaffected by Person B’s actions and vice versa.
Social helplessness exists when neither the person nor other can influence goal achievement. Kurt Lewin proposed that the essence of a group is the interdependence among members that results in the group being a dynamic whole so that a change in the state of any member or subgroup changes the state of any other member or subgroup. Group members are made interdependent through common goals. As members perceive their common goals, a state of tension arises that motivates movement toward the accomplishment of the goals. Morton Deutsch extended Lewin’s notions by examining how the tension systems of different people may be interrelated. He conceptualized two types of social interdependence—positive and negative.
Positive interdependence results in promotive interaction. Negative interdependence results in oppositional or content interaction. The basic premise of social interdependence theory is that how participants’ goals are structured determines the ways they interact and the interaction pattern determine the outcomes of the situation. Any course material or assignment can be adapted to this type of learning, and groups can vary from 2-6 people with discussions lasting from a few minutes up to an entire period. Having experience and developing skill with this type of learning often facilitates informal and base learning.
Jigsaw activities are wonderful because the student assumes the role of the teacher on a given topic and is in charge of teaching the topic to a classmate. The idea is that if students can teach something, they have already learned the material. Discussions typically have four components that include formulating a response to questions asked by the educator, sharing responses to the questions asked with a partner, listening to a partner’s responses to the same question, and creating a new well-developed answer. This type of learning enables the student to process, consolidate, and retain more information. Base group approaches also make the students accountable to educating their peer group in the event that a member was absent for a lesson. This is effective both for individual learning, as well as social support. The purpose of group processing is to clarify and improve the effectiveness with which members carry out the processes necessary to achieve the group’s goals.