Engineering has existed since ancient times, when humans devised inventions such as the wedge, lever, wheel and engineering economics and management book pdf. Greeks around the 4th century B. 18th century, the term became more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science were applied to these ends.
The United States census of 1850 listed the occupation of “engineer” for the first time with a count of 2,000. There were fewer than 50 engineering graduates in the U. In 1870 there were a dozen U. 43 per year in 1875. In 1890, there were 6,000 engineers in civil, mining, mechanical and electrical. There was no chair of applied mechanism and applied mechanics at Cambridge until 1875, and no chair of engineering at Oxford until 1907. Germany established technical universities earlier.
Industrial scale manufacturing demanded new materials and new processes and by 1880 the need for large scale production of chemicals was such that a new industry was created, dedicated to the development and large scale manufacturing of chemicals in new industrial plants. The role of the chemical engineer was the design of these chemical plants and processes. Early knowledge of aeronautical engineering was largely empirical with some concepts and skills imported from other branches of engineering. PhD awarded in science in the U. Engineering is a broad discipline which is often broken down into several sub-disciplines.
Although an engineer will usually be trained in a specific discipline, he or she may become multi-disciplined through experience. Beyond these “Big Four”, a number of other branches are recognized, though many can be thought of as sub-disciplines of the four major branches, or as cross-curricular disciplines among multiple. More than ever, engineers are now required to have a proficient knowledge of relevant sciences for their design projects. As a result, many engineers continue to learn new material throughout their career. If multiple solutions exist, engineers weigh each design choice based on their merit and choose the solution that best matches the requirements. The crucial and unique task of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the constraints on a design in order to yield a successful result.