Earth science 13th edition tarbuck and lutgens pdf


Qualities of air” redirects earth science 13th edition tarbuck and lutgens pdf. Composition of Earth’s atmosphere by volume.

Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0. 2009, and do not represent any single source. By volume, dry air contains 78. The atmosphere has a mass of about 5. Earth’s radius, is often used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space. Water vapor accounts for roughly 0.

Water vapor is about 0. Lower 4 layers of the atmosphere in 3 dimensions as seen diagonally from above the exobase. Layers drawn to scale, objects within the layers are not to scale. Aurorae shown here at the bottom of the thermosphere can actually form at any altitude in this atmospheric layer. In general, air pressure and density decrease with altitude in the atmosphere.

Excluding the exosphere, the atmosphere has four primary layers, which are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. This layer is mainly composed of extremely low densities of hydrogen, helium and several heavier molecules including nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide closer to the exobase. The atoms and molecules are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of kilometers without colliding with one another. Thus, the exosphere no longer behaves like a gas, and the particles constantly escape into space. The exosphere is located too far above Earth for any meteorological phenomena to be possible. The exosphere contains most of the satellites orbiting Earth.