Charles fort complete works pdf


Who built the Old Stone Fort? What was the purpose of the Old Stone Fort? The Duck River forms the peninsula’s northwestern boundary, the Little Duck forms the peninsula’s southeastern boundary, and a westward bend in charles fort complete works pdf Little Duck forms the peninsula’s southern boundary.

As the Duck and Little Duck approach their convergence, they rapidly drop in elevation, and have cut relatively deep gorges around the peninsula upon which the ancient structure is located. Both gorges are highlighted by a series of substantial waterfalls and whitewater rapids. The walls originally consisted of an inner and outer layer of crudely stacked rocks and slabs with gravel and earthen fill in between. Over the centuries, the earthen fill has spilled over the rock layers, giving the walls their current mound-like appearance. The walls can be divided into roughly three sections, with two sections running roughly parallel to the Duck and Little Duck Rivers, and a third section running parallel to the southern rim of the peninsula. The sections paralleling the rivers gradually move inward, away from their respective rivers, and approach one another in a pincer-like formation at the northeastern half of the peninsula.

Here, both walls terminate just before converging, allowing for a small entrance. L-shaped corridor which opens into the structure’s interior. Large open sections are found between both the southern wall and the northwestern wall and the southern wall and the southeastern wall. These areas were probably left open due to the fact that they overlook steep bluffs carved out by the Duck and Little Duck rivers whose waters probably performed the same function as the mounds. A substantial ditch, known as the “moat”, parallels the southern wall at the base of the ridge. This ditch is a natural feature and is actually an abandoned river channel. However, it is not known if this channel was artificially kept open in prehistory.

By the time white long hunters and traders arrived in the area in the mid-18th century, a system of well-worn trails traversed the Cumberland Plateau, connecting what is now Middle Tennessee with Georgia and Northern Alabama. The ancient structure was no doubt an important landmark to early travelers in the Middle Tennessee area. The structure also had an important symbolic significance for early Coffee County residents. The county’s first court was held at the “Old Stone Fort Tavern” in 1836, and the county seat was laid out upon “Main Stone Fort Creek. The powerful Duck River made the Old Stone Fort’s peninsula an attractive site for mills as early as 1823, when Samuel Murray built a rope factory on the Little Duck River. Although the factory burned in 1847, it was followed by W.

Whitman’s paper mill further downstream in 1852. In 1879, the Stone Fort Paper Company built a large mill near Big Falls on the Duck River. The mill’s foundations are on the bluffs overlooking Big Falls, and can be accessed via the Old Stone Fort Loop Trail. The property containing the Old Stone Fort was eventually passed into the hands of the Chumbley family, who had ties to Stone Fort Paper. The Chumbleys, seeking to protect the Old Stone Fort, passed up numerous private offers for the land the ancient structure was located on. Chumbley estate that became the core of Old Stone Fort State Archaeological Park. The Old Stone Fort was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.

Throughout the 19th and early 20th century, various theories tried to identify the builders. Florida and forced them inland. Viking artifacts in various parts of North America led many to believe the Vikings built stone structures in the Eastern U. 1876 and uncovered several prehistoric artifacts. He was followed by Tennessee State Archaeologist P. Cox in 1928, who dug several trenches and analyzed the fort’s composition. In 1966, after the purchase of the Old Stone Fort, the University of Tennessee Department of Anthropology investigated the structure’s origins.

Digging a series of trenches and test pits and conducting extensive research, the investigators determined the builders to be Native Americans of the Middle Woodland period. 30-430 AD, in the Middle Woodland period. The University of Tennessee determined the fort was built gradually over a period of several hundred years. 1st century AD and the second completing it. For decades, it was largely assumed the structure was used for military defense. Evidence from the 1966 excavations, however, points more to a religious or ceremonial function. Defensive structures are typically constructed quickly in response to a threat, but the Old Stone Fort was constructed gradually over several centuries.