FAO works to promote coherent approaches to sustainable land and water management. This flagship report analyses a variety of options for overcoming constraints and improving resource management in areas of heightened risk. In each location, causes of land degradation pdf mix of changes in institutional and policy measures will have to be combined with greater access to technologies for better management of land and water resources.
This paper aims to provide policy-makers with a helpful overview of the technical and economic aspects of water use in agriculture, with particular emphasis on crop and livestock production. Through 2050, in many countries, agriculture will remain an important determinant of economic growth, poverty reduction, and food security, even as, over time, the proportion of agricultural revenue in national gross income declines. Common understanding of the causes of land-use and land-cover change is dominated by simplifications which, in turn, underlie many environment-development policies. This article tracks some of the major myths on driving forces of land-cover change and proposes alternative pathways of change that are better supported by case study evidence. Cases reviewed support the conclusion that neither population nor poverty alone constitute the sole and major underlying causes of land-cover change worldwide. Rather, peoples’ responses to economic opportunities, as mediated by institutional factors, drive land-cover changes. Opportunities and constraints for new land uses are created by local as well as national markets and policies.
Global forces become the main determinants of land-use change, as they amplify or attenuate local factors. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. Economic mechanisms are identified to move from land degradation to sustainable land management. There is a need to move beyond purely monetary valuation of ecosystem services. Mechanisms must tackle economic causes of land degradation and benefit rich and poor. These points are illustrated with a case study from the Kalahari, Botswana. This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms.