Books about girls behaviour pdf” and “Aggressive Behavior” redirect here. It may occur either in retaliation or without provocation.
In humans, frustration due to blocked goals can cause aggression. Human aggression can be classified into direct and indirect aggression, whilst the first is characterized by physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm to someone, the second one is characterized by a behavior intended to harm social relations of an individual or a group. Some definitions include that the individual must intend to harm another person. Aggression can have adaptive benefits or negative effects. Aggressive behavior is an individual or collective social interaction that is a hostile behavior with the intention of inflicting damage or harm.
Two broad categories of aggression are commonly distinguished. An example of hostile aggression would be a person who punches someone who insulted him or her. However, some researchers question the usefulness of a hostile versus instrumental distinction in humans, despite its ubiquity in research, because most real-life cases involve mixed motives and interacting causes. A number of classifications and dimensions of aggression have been suggested. Aggression may occur in response to non-social as well as social factors, and can have a close relationship with stress coping style.
Biological approaches conceptualize aggression as an internal energy released by external stimuli, a product of evolution through natural selection, part of genetics, a product of hormonal fluctuations. Psychological approaches conceptualize aggression as a destructive instinct, a response to frustration, an affect excited by a negative stimulus, a result of observed learning of society and diversified reinforcement, a resultant of variables that affect personal and situational environments. The first known use dates back to 1611, in the sense of an unprovoked attack. In such settings aggression can involve bodily contact such as biting, hitting or pushing, but most conflicts are settled by threat displays and intimidating thrusts that cause no physical harm. Most ethologists believe that aggression confers biological advantages. Aggression may also occur for self-protection or to protect offspring. However, according to many researchers, predation is not aggression.