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Attach a pdf to latex article file explorer, in his narrative of a journey made in 1804 from St. According to Lewis’s letter, the samples were donated by “Mr.

Those cuttings did not survive, but later the thorny Osage orange tree was widely naturalized throughout the United States. Louis, apparently the same person. The trees are also known as “bodark” or “bodarc” trees, most likely originating from a corruption of “bois d’arc. The roots are thick, fleshy, and covered with bright orange bark. The tree’s mature bark is dark, deeply furrowed and scaly.

The plant has significant potential to invade unmanaged habitats. The wood is heavy, hard, strong, and flexible, capable of receiving a fine polish and very durable in contact with the ground. In autumn they turn bright yellow. Branches contain a yellow pith, and are armed with stout, straight, axillary spines. During the winter, the branches bear lateral buds that are depressed-globular, partly immersed in the bark, and pale chestnut brown in color. Pistillate flowers are borne in a dense spherical many-flowered head which appears on a short stout peduncle from the axils of the current year’s growth. Each flower has a hairy four-lobed calyx with thick, concave lobes that invest the ovary and enclose the fruit.

Although the flowering is dioecious, the pistillate tree when isolated will still bear large oranges, perfect to the sight but lacking the seeds. It has since become widely naturalized in the United States and Ontario, Canada. Osage orange has been planted in all the 48 contiguous states of the United States and in southeastern Canada. The natural mechanism of seed dispersal for Osage orange, and the reason for its limited historical range despite its adaptability, has been the subject of debate.

However, a 2015 study indicated that Osage orange seeds are not effectively spread by horses or elephant species. United States, where it is used as a hedge plant. A neglected hedge will soon become fruit-bearing. It is remarkably free from insect enemies and fungal diseases. A thornless male cultivar of the species exists and is vegetatively reproduced for ornamental use.

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