3 types of modernization theory pdf


Fordism is “the eponymous manufacturing system designed to spew out standardized, low-cost goods and afford its workers decent enough wages to buy them. It has also been described as “a model of economic expansion and technological progress based on mass production: the manufacture of standardized products in huge volumes 3 types of modernization theory pdf special purpose machinery and unskilled labor.

Although Fordism was a method used to improve productivity in the automotive industry, the principle could be applied to any kind of manufacturing process. The principles, coupled with a technological revolution during Henry Ford’s time, allowed for his revolutionary form of labor to flourish. His assembly line was revolutionary though not original as it had previously been used at slaughterhouses. His most original contribution to the modern world was breaking down complex tasks into simpler ones, with the help of specialised tools.

Simpler tasks created interchangeable parts that could be used the same every time. That allowed for a very adaptable flexibility, creating an assembly line that could change its constituent components to meet the needs of the product being assembled. In reality, the assembly line had already been around before Ford although not in quite the same effectiveness as he would create. His real accomplishment was recognizing the potential by breaking it all down into its components, only to build it back up again in a more effective and productive combination, thereby producing an optimum method for the real world.

The major advantages of such a change was that it cut down on the manpower necessary for the factory to operate, and it deskilled the labour itself, cutting down on costs of production. Efficiency both decreased the price of the cars and allowed Ford to increase his workers’ wages. Hence, common workers could buy their own cars. The mass production of this automobile lowered its unit price, making it affordable for the average consumer.

That led to massive consumption. The production system that Ford exemplified involved synchronization, precision, and specialization within a company. However, many contemporaries framed their worldview as one and applied the name Fordism to it. After 1918, however, the goal of Taylorist labor efficiency thought in Europe moved to “Fordism,” the reorganization of the entire productive process by the moving assembly line, standardization, and the mass market. The grand appeal of Fordism in Europe was that it promised to sweep away all the archaic residues of precapitalist society, by subordinating the economy, society, and even the human personality to the strict criteria of technical rationality.

Fordism and subsequent economic stages, from globalization to neoliberal globalization, during the 20th century, and emphasized America’s role in globalization. Fordism,” for Gramsci, meant routine, intensified labor to promote production. Antonio and Bonanno further suggest that negative elements of Fordism, such as economic inequality, remained, allowing related cultural and environmental troubles, which inhibited America’s pursuit of democracy to surface. 1920s and the 1930s, enthusiastically embraced Fordism and Taylorism by importing American experts in both fields as well as American engineering firms to build parts of its new industrial infrastructure. The combination of the Russian revolutionary sweep with American efficiency is the essence of Leninism. Hughes describes how, as the Soviet Union developed and grew in power, both the Soviets and the Americans chose to ignore or deny the contribution of American ideas and expertise.